The claims to civil liability in tort are considered as legal defensive methods aimed at negating or attenuating the civil liability of the defendant, if he succeeds in raising them within the action in liability in tort. It is worth-bearing in mind that these claims originated within the law of tort, which is regarded as a customary unwritten law, based upon judicial precedents issued by English courts, it is also worth-mentioning that these claims are classified in the English law into two types: the first are absent-element defenses. The second are affirmative defenses. Whereas both the Iraqi civil law, No.40of 1951 and the Federal civil transactions law No. 5 of 1985 of the United Arab Emirates subcategorized the conditions of negation (denial) or attenuation of the civil liability caused by harmful act (illegal act) into conditions of negation or attenuation of civil liability for denial of illegality from harmful act and conditions of negation or attenuation of civil liability for denial of causal link by extraneous cause.
Ali, Younis Salah Eddin
"Civil Liability Claims Arising from Torts in the English Law:,"
UAEU Law Journal: Vol. 2018:
74, Article 4.
Available at: https://scholarworks.uaeu.ac.ae/sharia_and_law/vol2018/iss74/4