In 1924, the Hague Rules were adopted. The purpose of the Rules was to establish a standardized set of definitions and rules to govern the terms and conditions used in ocean bills of lading. One of its unique provisions limits a carrier's liability for lost or damaged cargo on a “per package or unit” basis; however, the said Rules failed to define the term “package” and “unit” which lead to disputes between carriers and shippers. To resolve their differences, both shippers and carriers heavily litigated the issue of what a “package” and “unit” is for purposes of limiting a carrier's liability. This study sheds lights on how American, English, Kuwaiti and Emirati legislation defined the terms “unit” and package in bills of lading.
M, A Hassan
"What Constitutes a “Unit” or “Package” in Bills of Lading? )*( A Study of American, English, Kuwaiti and Emirati Decisions,"
UAEU Law Journal: Vol. 2011:
45, Article 7.
Available at: https://scholarworks.uaeu.ac.ae/sharia_and_law/vol2011/iss45/7