This research deals with the principle of in kind execution of contractual obligations and the exceptions thereto under the 2016 UNIDROIT Principles and the provisions of the French Civil Code created by decree of 10 February 2016, which amends the Law on Contracts and General Provisions and Proof of Obligations. Both the UNIDROIT Principles and the French civil law establish the principle of in kind execution; it applies to all types of contractual obligations. Nevertheless, the UNIDROIT Principles state five exceptions to this principle, namely: when performance is impossible in law or in fact; when performance is unreasonably burdensome or expensive; when the party entitled to performance may reasonably obtain performance from another source; when performance is of an exclusively personal character; or when the party entitled to performance does not require performance within a reasonable time. Also, the French Civil Code includes similar exceptions to the obligation to perform in kind, namely, if the in kind execution is impossible, and if there is an apparent in proportionality between the cost the good faith debtor would endure and the benefit the creditor would achieve from the in kind execution.

This research aims to analyze and compare the provisions on in kind execution under the UNIDROIT Principles and French Civil Law, in order to identify the extent to which they are harmonious or different. Accordingly, the principle of in kind execution of contractual obligations, including the conditions of its application is analyzed in the first chapter. The second chapter tackles the exceptions to this principle, in terms of concept, conditions of application, the judge's authority and the parties’ freedom to exclude them.

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