Date of Award
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
Dr. Wissam Ibrahim
With the increasing apprehension over food safety nowadays, there have been relentless efforts aiming for subrogating antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) in poultry feeds. Thus, this research study aims at investigating the potential effects of using degraded date pits (DDP) as feedstuff and as a natural alternative for antibiotics in poultry feeding. Two feeding experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, the minimum time of feeding a diet containing 10% DDP is required to induce growth-promoting effects on broiler performance. In experiment 2, the influence of feeding 10% DDP was examined as feedstuff at 10% in broilers diets and a growth-promoting agent compared with corn-soybean meal diets supplemented with antibiotic 50 g of 20% oxytetracycline, 0.2% of mannan oligosaccharide (MOS), and either 0.2 or 0.1% of mannose on growth performance, microbial growth, antioxidant and biochemical effects, intestine development and antibacterial gene expression in broiler chickens. Date pits (DP) were degraded with the fungus Trichoderma reesei using solid-state degradation (SSD) and included in broiler’s diets at 10%. Results showed that biological degradation with T. reesei significantly improved the nutritional effect of DP by increasing the proximate composition, monosaccharide composition, mineral content and in vitro antioxidant activities. The results of experiment 1, showed that a prolonged feeding period of 10% DDP to 5 weeks for broiler resulted in better growth than three or four weeks of feeding periods. The results of experiment 2 indicated that there were no significant differences in body weight, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) among the different dietary treatments. Total bacterial count, E. coli, Enterobacteriaceae, Shigella, and salmonella count, were significantly decreased in 10% DDP diet fed-broilers, 0.2% MOS and antibiotic diet fed-broilers, showing that DDP and MOS have a similar mode of action. The results of the antioxidant and biochemical effects of DDP showed that the activity of antioxidant enzymes in serum, liver, and intestine of broilers fed diets with 10% DDP and 0.2% MOS were increased significantly compared with other treatments, but malondialdehyde (MDA) content was significantly decreased. Among the different dietary treatments, 10% DDP and 0.2% MOS diet enhanced the pancreatic digestive enzymes, histomorphology of intestine, and weight and length of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. Immunoglobulin levels in serum and intestinal contents, the expression pattern of mucin-2, cathelicidins, beta-defensins, and LEAP-2 in jejunum were up-regulated in 10% DDP and 0.2% MOS diet fed-broilers.
In conclusion, a 10% DDP diet can be fed to broiler chickens during 1-42 days of age and also as a growth-promoting agent to replace antibiotics while showing a similar mode of action to MOS. The results suggested that DDP can be used as a feedstuff and growth promoter for chicken feeding in the Arabian Peninsula, whereas the DDP is produced abundantly and available at a large amount, this will result in decreasing environmental pollution of unutilized agriculture by-products.
Al Yileili, Salem Rashed Ali Rashed, "CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF TRICHODERMA REESEI DEGRADED DATE PITS AND ITS EFFECT ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND INTESTINAL BACTERIAL POPULATION AND ANTIOXIDANT STATUS - A COMPARATIVE STUDY WITH MANNOSE AND MANNAN -OLIGOSACCHARIDE ON BROILER" (2019). Dissertations. 115.