Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Environmental Science

First Advisor

Dr. Salem Abbes

Second Advisor

Dr. Alghazali Lihadh

Third Advisor

Dr. Fateh Alrahman Awadh


Molecular analysis has revealed that a variety of hemoglobin molecules are produced in humans. All are tetramers consisting of numerous combinations of seven distinct polypeptide chains, each encoded by a separate gene.

Fetal hemoglobin is one of these tetramers that by eight weeks of gestation replace the embryonic hemoglobin forms. Fetal hemoglobin is the major hemoglobin in fetal life. it's concentration in blood decreases after birth to less than 2 per cent of the total hemoglobin by 6 months of age. However, in some cases fetal hemoglobin persist to synthesize in adult life in abnormal concentrations.

Our study concerned the fetal hemoglobin expression in four different groups (normal group, anemic group, pregnant women group, and thalassemic patients group).

The results show that fetal hemoglobin in the normal group was in the normal ranges observed in other populations, there is no big differences between males and females, and there was no correlation between fetal cells level and fetal hemoglobin production.

In the anemic group there was more fetal hemoglobin present than in the normal group and there was no differences between males and females. Fetal hemoglobin continue to be expressed in anemic conditions, even when due to genetic or environmental factors.

The fetal hemoglobin production in pregnant women is heterogenous and is still within the normal female range that was obtained in our study, this indicates that there are no sex linked genetic factors modulating the fetal hemoglobin expression.

The study. shows also, that fetal hemoglobin production is heterogenous in beta thalassemic patients and there were large variations betvleen the heterozygous and the homozygous patients. The large differences in expression within a homogenous genetic population and, sometimes within the same family, imposes the problem of fetal hemoglobin regulation and leads us to assume that fetal hemoglobin production is under at least 2 determinants: genetic, nongenetic.