Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Environmental Science

First Advisor

Abdel Fattah Haikal

Second Advisor

Dr.Ahmed M almdhdi

Third Advisor

Yehia Abdou Ibrahim


Adipocytes play an important role in insulin resistance through its endocrine functions such as production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Adipocyte specific TNF-α inhibits insulin receptor protein tyrosin kinase activity causing the development of type2 diabetes (NIDDM). Nucleosides trigger a variety of regulatory effects in biological systems, such as inhibiting or stimulating protein synthesis. The present study was carried to screen seven synthetic nucleosides, for their effect on TNF-α release from adipocytes in vitro. Subcutaneous adipose tissue was dissected under sterile condition and plated in 24-well dishes in a humidified CO2-incubator in the presence or absence of various concentrations of the nucleosides for 48 hrs. There after media were collected and kept frozen until assayed for TNF-α. All nucleoside used had no effect on TNF-α release from adipocytes at low concentrations; however, higher nucleoside concentrations increased TNF-α release.

The effects of polar extract of eight most commonly used medicinal plants in the treatment of diabetes were also investigated. Nigella sativa, Rhazya stricta and Salvia sclarea reduced adipocyte specific TNF-α release. Zygophyllum simplex, Hammada elegans, Anastatica hierochuntica, Tephrosia apollinea and Teucrium stocksianum had no effect on TNF-α at low concentration. Further in vitro studies are required to investigate the effect of the fore mentioned polar extracts on the TNF-α induced insulin receptor down regulation and thus type2 diabetes treatment.