Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Environmental Science

First Advisor

Dr. Ernest Adeghate

Second Advisor

Dr. Samir Awadallah

Third Advisor

Dr. Abdu Adem


Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most common exocrine disorders affecting more than 6% of the world’s population. The incidence and prevalence of this chronic disease are on the rise in many parts of the world including the Middle East. DM is caused by defective Insulin production, release and/or function. The causes and nature of abnormal insulin metabolism is less than clear. While defective insulin secretion is observed in type 1 diabetes, insulin resistance is predominant in type 2 diabetes, which affects more than 94% of the diabetic patients.

Materials and Methods: Rats between the age of two and three months were divided into nine groups each consisting of 12 rats: Goto Kakizaki (GK) normal, GK treated with visfatin, GK treated with adiponectin, Wistar diabetic rats treated with visfatin, Wistar diabetic rats treated with adiponectin, normal Wistar treated with visfatin, normal Wistar rats treated with adiponectin, untreated diabetic Wistar rats and normal untreated Wistar rats.

Diabetes in Wistar rats was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg kg-1). One week from induction of diabetes, selected groups received intraperitoneal injection of (10 ng/kg body weight) either adiponectin or visfatin for 14 weeks. All animals from all groups were sacrificed after 14 weeks of treatment for blood plasma biochemistry analysis. The pancreas was rapidly removed and representative fragments were taken to be used for immunohistochemical, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy studies.

Results: Adiponectin and visfatin improved glucose tolerance in Wistar as well as GK rats. In addition, the number and quality of pancreatic beta cells improved after treatment with adiponectin and visfatin leading to increase in the plasma level of insulin. Liver and kidney parameters including lactic acid dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, and blood urea nitrogen decreased significantly after treatment with either adiponectin or visfatin.

Conclusion: Adiponectin and visfatin ameliorate several metabolic parameters in animal models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, resulting in improved glycemic control.