Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Civil Engineering (MSCE)


Civil Engineering

First Advisor

Dr. Rezaul K. Chowdhury

Second Advisor

Dr. Munjed Maraqa

Third Advisor

Professor George Nakhla


Municipal wastewater can be divided into two categories, greywater and black water. Greywater occupies about 75% of total wastewater and are relatively less polluted than the black water. Reuse of greywater is becoming popular in many arid and semiarid regions in order to reduce the municipal water demand. They can be reused for groundwater recharge, landscape irrigation and for toilet flushing. However, the main challenges are their collection, storage and selection of the appropriate treatment system. The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is located in a hyper arid region, having an annual average rainfall of less than 100 mm. Reliable survey data for surface water resources are not available here. Three main sources of water resources in the UAE are groundwater, desalinated water and reclaimed wastewater. Despite their scarce water resources, residential water consumption in the UAE is significantly high, of which more than half of the municipal water are used for outdoor activities. The water demand reduction and diversification of water sources are very important for the security of its urban water supply. The study investigated the quantity and characteristics of greywater, and the efficiency of two alternative treatment systems, the biofiltration and the permeable pavement with an underlying reservoir. The study was conducted in the city of Al Ain. Both treatment systems are conventionally used for urban stormwater treatment. They are popularly known as the Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) systems. Laboratory scale prototypes of both systems were prepared and investigated. The estimated greywater generation rate was found about 190 liter/capita/day. The ablution and laundry greywater exhibits the least and most deteriorated greywater, respectively. Both systems performed well in improving the greywater quality, but the vegetative biofiltration unit performed better than the permeable pavement unit. The study revealed that the permeable pavement with an underlying reservoir can be used as a storage unit and subsequent treatment can be achieved in the vegetative biofiltration system. Both systems are well fitted within the urban landscape of UAE.