Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Electrical Engineering (MSEE)


Electrical and Communication Engineering

First Advisor

Atef Abdrabou


In the current world, most cities have WiFi Access Points (AP) in every nook and corner. Hence upraising these cities to the status of a smart city is a more easily achievable task than before. Internet-of-Things (IoT) connections primarily use WiFi standards to form the veins of a smart city. Unfortunately, this vast potential of WiFi technology in the genesis of smart cities is somehow compromised due to its failure in meeting unique Quality-of-Service (QoS) demands of smart city applications. Out of the following QoS factors; transmission link bandwidth, packet transmission delay, jitter, and packet loss rate, not all applications call for the all of the factors at the same time. Since smart city is a pool of drastically unrelated services, this variable demand can actually be advantageous to optimize the network performance. This thesis work is an attempt to achieve one of those QoS demands, namely packet delivery latency. Three algorithms are developed to alleviate traffic load imbalance at APs so as to reduce packet forwarding delay. Software-Defined Networking (SDN) is making its way in the network world to be of great use and practicality. The algorithms make use of SDN features to control the connections to APs in order to achieve the delay requirements of smart city services. Real hardware devices are used to imitate a real-life scenario of citywide coverage consisting of WiFi devices and APs that are currently available in the market with neither of those having any additional requirements such as support for specific roaming protocol, running a software agent or sending probe packets. Extensive hardware experimentation proves the efficacy of the proposed algorithms.

Arabic Abstract

ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ اﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ، ﺗﺤﺘﻮي ﻣﻌﻈﻢ اﻟﻤﺪن ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻘﺎط وﺻﻮل (AP) WiFi ﻓﻲ ﻛﻞ زاوﯾﺔ وزاوﯾﺔ. وﻣﻦ ﺛﻢ ﻓﺈن اﻻرﺗﻘﺎء ﺑﮭﺬه اﻟﻤﺪن إﻟﻰ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﺔ اﻟﻤﺪﯾﻨﺔ اﻟﺬﻛﯿﺔ ھﻮ ﻣﮭﻤﺔ ﯾﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺤﻘﯿﻘﮭﺎ ﺑﺴﮭﻮﻟﺔ أﻛﺒﺮ ﻣﻦ ذي ﻗﺒﻞ. ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪم اﺗﺼﺎﻻت إﻧﺘﺮﻧﺖ اﻷﺷﯿﺎء (IoT) ﺑﺸﻜﻞ أﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻣﻌﺎﯾﯿﺮ WiFi ﻟﺘﺸﻜﯿﻞ ﻋﺮوق ﻣﺪﯾﻨﺔ ذﻛﯿﺔ. ﻟﺴﻮء اﻟﺤﻆ، ﻓﺈن ھﺬه اﻹﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎت اﻟﮭﺎﺋﻠﺔ ﻟﺘﻘﻨﯿﺔ WiFi ﻓﻲ ﻧﺸﺄة اﻟﻤﺪن اﻟﺬﻛﯿﺔ ﺗﺘﻌﺮض ﻟﻠﺨﻄﺮ إﻟﻰ ﺣﺪ ﻣﺎ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﻓﺸﻠﮭﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻠﺒﯿﺔ ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎت ﺟﻮدة اﻟﺨﺪﻣﺔ (QoS) اﻟﻔﺮﯾﺪة ﻟﺘﻄﺒﯿﻘﺎت اﻟﻤﺪن اﻟﺬﻛﯿﺔ. ﻣﻦ ﺑﯿﻦ ﻋﻮاﻣﻞ ﺟﻮدة اﻟﺨﺪﻣﺔ اﻟﺘﺎﻟﯿﺔ؛ ﻋﺮض اﻟﻨﻄﺎق اﻟﺘﺮددي ﻟﻮﺻﻠﺔ اﻹرﺳﺎل وﺗﺄﺧﯿﺮ إرﺳﺎل اﻟﺮزم واﻻرﺗﻌﺎش وﻣﻌﺪل ﻓﻘﺪان اﻟﺤﺰﻣﺔ، ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﺪﻋﻲ ﺟﻤﯿﻊ اﻟﺘﻄﺒﯿﻘﺎت ﺟﻤﯿﻊ اﻟﻌﻮاﻣﻞ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻔﺲ اﻟﻮﻗﺖ. ﻧﻈﺮاً ﻷن اﻟﻤﺪﯾﻨﺔ اﻟﺬﻛﯿﺔ ﻋﺒﺎرة ﻋﻦ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺨﺪﻣﺎت ﻏﯿﺮ اﻟﻤﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻛﺒﯿﺮ، ﯾﻤﻜﻦ أن ﯾﻜﻮن ھﺬا اﻟﻄﻠﺐ اﻟﻤﺘﻐﯿﺮ ﻣﻔﯿﺪاً ﻓﻲ اﻟﻮاﻗﻊ ﻟﺘﺤﺴﯿﻦ أداء اﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ. ﯾﻌﺪ ھﺬا اﻟﻌﻤﻞ اﻟﺨﺎص ﺑﺎﻷطﺮوﺣﺔ ﻣﺤﺎوﻟﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﯿﻖ أﺣﺪ ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎت ﺟﻮدة اﻟﺨﺪﻣﺔ ھﺬه، أﻻ وھﻮ زﻣﻦ اﻧﺘﻘﺎل اﻟﺤﺰم. ﺗﻢ ﺗﻄﻮﯾﺮ ﺛﻼث ﺧﻮارزﻣﯿﺎت ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻔﯿﻒ ﻣﻦ اﺧﺘﻼل ﺣﻤﻞ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ اﻟﻤﺮور ﻓﻲ ﻧﻘﺎط اﻟﻮﺻﻮل وذﻟﻚ ﻟﺘﻘﻠﯿﻞ ﺗﺄﺧﯿﺮ إﻋﺎدة ﺗﻮﺟﯿﮫ اﻟﺤﺰﻣﺔ. ﺗﺸﻖ اﻟﺸﺒﻜﺎت اﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺮﻣﺠﯿﺎت (SDN) طﺮﯾﻘﮭﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻟﻢ اﻟﺸﺒﻜﺎت ﻟﺘﻜﻮن ذات ﻓﺎﺋﺪة وﻋﻤﻠﯿﺔ ﻛﺒﯿﺮة. ﺗﺴﺘﻔﯿﺪ اﻟﺨﻮارزﻣﯿﺎت ﻣﻦ ﻣﯿﺰات SDN ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ اﻻﺗﺼﺎﻻت ﺑﻨﻘﺎط اﻟﻮﺻﻮل ﻣﻦ أﺟﻞ ﺗﺤﻘﯿﻖ ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎت اﻟﺘﺄﺧﯿﺮ ﻟﺨﺪﻣﺎت اﻟﻤﺪﯾﻨﺔ اﻟﺬﻛﯿﺔ. ﺗُﺴﺘﺨﺪم اﻷﺟﮭﺰة اﻟﺤﻘﯿﻘﯿﺔ ﻟﺘﻘﻠﯿﺪ ﺳﯿﻨﺎرﯾﻮ ﺣﻘﯿﻘﻲ ﻟﻠﺘﻐﻄﯿﺔ اﻟﻮاﺳﻌﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺪﯾﻨﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺘﻜﻮن ﻣﻦ أﺟﮭﺰة WiFi وﻧﻘﺎط اﻟﻮﺻﻮل اﻟﻤﺘﻮﻓﺮة ﺣﺎﻟﯿًﺎ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺴﻮق ﻣﻊ ﻋﺪم وﺟﻮد أي ﻣﻦ ﺗﻠﻚ اﻷﺟﮭﺰة اﻟﺘﻲ ﻟﺪﯾﮭﺎ أي ﻣﺘﻄﻠﺒﺎت إﺿﺎﻓﯿﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ دﻋﻢ ﺑﺮوﺗﻮﻛﻮل ﺗﺠﻮال ﻣﻌﯿﻦ أو ﺗﺸﻐﯿﻞ وﻛﯿﻞ ﺑﺮﻣﺠﯿﺎت أو اﻹرﺳﺎل ﺣﺰم اﻟﺘﺤﻘﯿﻖ. أﺛﺒﺘﺖ اﻟﺘﺠﺎرب اﻟﻮاﺳﻌﺔ ﻟﻸﺟﮭﺰة ﻓﺎﻋﻠﯿﺔ اﻟﺨﻮارزﻣﯿﺎت اﻟﻤﻘﺘﺮﺣﺔ.