Date of Award

2-1996

Document Type

Thesis

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)

Department

Environmental Science

First Advisor

Dr. Abdulbari Benet

Second Advisor

Nelson Norman

Third Advisor

Dr.Salem Al Dhahri

Abstract

There are little data available for environmental pollution, as well as air pollution and statistical information published in the United Arab Emirates. Especially, Abu Dhabi Emirate, has been the location of the UAE's most persistent and extreme levels of industrial oil waste and chemical smog and air pollutants which produces sulphur dioxide emission. In addition, has a high vehicle population, which produces carbon monoxide emission from the motor vehicle exhaust. The acute toxicity of carbon monoxide (CO) has long been recognized and well documented. The motor vehicle is by far the largest contributor to Co accounting for 55% of total emissions. The tremendous increase in the number and use of motor vehicles has been accompanied by a rapid increase in Co emissions.

The air of this study was to investigate oil refinery and traffic air pollution especially Sulphur dioxide emissions around industrial oil refinery in both Onshore and Offshore areas of Abu Dhabi Emirate. Additionally, to measure and estimate the emssion of CO from motor vehicle exhaust in Al Ain City of Abu Dhabi Emirate. Then, to study the effect of air pollution and its risk exposure on human health.

The present material was based on three set of data: 1- Sulphur Dioxide emissions in Onshore in Habshan for a period of 1992 and 1995 years; 2- Sulphur Dioxide emissions in Offshore in Das Islands (Sahil village, Storex, Telecommunication Building and Zakum area) for a period of 31st January 1990 and 31st December 1994; 3 - Carbon Monoxide (Co) exposure from motor vehicles exhaust were measured over a 2 months period from September to November 1995 at the three locations of Al Ain City. A specifically designed questionnaire was applied to the randomly selected cars to direct the required information on the following topics: make of the car, model of the car by year, size of the car in cylinder, engine capacity in liters, how many undriven per day, how often having service for the car, type of the car in size, reason for driving and type of fuel.

The results of Sulphur dioxide emissions in atmosphere at Habshan, Abu Dhabi Emirate, during a period between 1992 and 1995 years are presented. This yearly mean concentrations of sulphur dioxide in Habshan generally varied from about 13 µg/m3 to 60 µg/m3, although on two years 1994 and 1995, there were a peak in concentration of 60 µg/m3. It is likely that this peaks were attributable to emissions from power plants or other industrial processes. It might that the background sulphur dioxide concentrations were attributable to both industrial oil refinery and vehicular emissions. The graphic trends show that the monthly average concentration for sulphur dioxide for Habshan was below the guidelines given by World Health Organization (WHO, S02 = 125 µg/m3). Overall, the frequency of occurrence and magnitude of sulphur dioxide peaks in Habshan will depend on factors such as wind speed and directions, dry bulb temperature, wet bulb temperature and relative humidity. Furthermore, the results from this area did not exceed the air quality criteria for Sulphur dioxide.

In offshore, Das Island, Sulphur Dioxide emissions are investigated during January 1990 and December 1994. The yearly and monthly mean concentrations of sulphur dioxide in Das Islands (Sahil Village, Storex, Telecomms Building & Zakum), Abu Dhabi Emirate, generally varied from 6 µg/m3 to 70 µg/m3 during a period between 1st January 1990 and 31st December 1994, for five years. Although, regularly a high peak was observed in Zakum and Storex areas for the aforementioned intervals. The graphic trends showed that the monthly average concentrations for Sulphur Dioxide in Das Island (Zakum, Storex, Telecomms Building and Sahil Village) were below the guidelines given by World Health Organization. However, the frequency of occurrence and magnitude of Sulphur Dioxide peaks in Das Islands were, depend on factors such as wind directions, wind speed, dry bulb temperature, wet bulb temperature and relative humidity. Furthermore, the results from this area did not exceed the air quality criteria for sulphur dioxide except for Zakum and Storex areas there were some abnormal in a short time. Comparing the produce data for the 1994 with the data of previous years (1990, 1991, 1992 & 1993), it can be seen that the level of emission of S02 has been dropped. This reduction is due to the commissioning of new de sulphurized plant in Das Island which treats hydrogen sulfide gas associated with the oil and gas production activities.

Finally, the results on Carbon Monoxide exposure from motor vehicles exhaust in Al Ain City of Abu Dhabi Emirates for a period between 1st September - 13th November 1995 was presented. Significantly􀃭 pollution by Carbon Monoxide resulting mostly from traffic was detected in the urban and sub-urban areas of Al Ain City. No cars are manufactured in UAE and no regulations as regards to the emission on imported cars are being enforced at the moment. Analyses of variance revealed that the factors such as make of car, type or size of cylinder, type of fuel, size of car, maintaining service of the car exerted the greatest influence on the amount and concentration of carbon monoxide.

In conclusion in this study, the degree of air pollution in the industrial and residential areas of Abu Dhabi Emirate and Carbon Monoxide exposure from motor vehicles exhaust in Al Ain City was investigated including the various factors and conditions which influence the air pollution levels. In the variations of sulphur dioxide in Onshore and Offshore were depends on wind speed directions, dry bulb temperature and relative humidity. Overall, sulphur dioxide emission in Onshore and Offshore was below the guidelines given by World Health Organization.

The tremendous increase in the number and use of motor vehicles has been accompanied by a rapid increase in CO emissions. A great deal and attention should be paid to the effects of CO exposure to the concentrations commonly found in urban air which caused almost wholly by traffic pollution. Petrol engine is the main source of this urban pollutant and as traffic becomes denser and more wide-spread the problems imposed by the inhalation of relatively low concentrations of CO are likely to grow rather than diminish. These problems could be of special concern in countries where the number of vehicles has increased dramatically. Having assessed air pollution emissions and ambient concentrations within the Abu Dhabi Emirate then we should develop control strategy where necessary. However, consideration should be given to the future expansion of towns and cities towards industrial emission sources, and the potential decrease in the air quality of residential areas as a possible consequence. Overall, the findings of this study has emphasized the importance of sulphur dioxide emissions from industrial oil refinery and carbon monoxide exposure from motor vehicle exhaust in Abu Dhabi Emirate.

Share

COinS